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[原创] 钢制乘用车或轻卡保险杠横梁系统应用研究

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发表于 2013-11-14 20:52:39 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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钢制乘用车或轻卡保险杠横梁系统应用研究
An in-depth report on steel bumper systems, including information on:
&#8226; Material Properties
&#8226; Manufacturing
&#8226; Product Design

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Contents i
Figures vi
Tables viii
Preface ix
Introduction x
Objective xiii
1. Bumper systems and components
1.1 Bumper systems 1-1
1.1.1 System selection
1.1.2 Metal facebar system
1.1.3 Plastic fascia and reinforcing beam system
1.1.4 Plastic fascia, reinforcing beam and energy absorption system
1.2 Bumper components 1-3
1.2.1 Fascia
1.2.2 Energy absorbers
1.2.3 Facebar
1.2.4 Reinforcing beam
1.3 Types of Bumper Beams 1-5
1.3.1 Steel Reimforcing Beams
1.3.2 Steel Facebars
1.3.3 Plastic Reinforcing Beams
1.3.4 Aluminum Reinforcing Beams
2. Steel materials 2-1
2.1 Introduction 2-1
2.2 Typical properties of steel grades for facebars 2-2
2.3 Typical properties of steel grades for brackets, supports, and reinforcing beams 2-2
2.4 FutureSteelVehicle Materials Portfolio for Automotive Applications 2-5
2.5 Elongation versus tensile strength 2-5
2.6 Elongation versus after-fabrication yield strength 2-6
2.7 Elongation versus tensile strength for hot-formed steel 2-11
2.8 Yield strength versus strain rate 2-12
2.9 Sheet steel descriptors 2-14
2.10 SAE J2329 Low-carbon sheet steel 2-15
2.10.1 Steel grade
2.10.2 Types of cold rolled sheet
2.10.3 Types of hot rolled sheet
2.11 SAE J2340 Dent resistant, high-strength and ultra high-strength sheet steel 2-16
2.11.1 Steel grade
2.11.2 Steel type
2.11.3 Hot rolled, cold reduced and metallic coated sheet
2.11.4 Surface conditions for cold reduced and metallic coated sheet
2.11.5 Conditions for hot rolled sheet
2.12 SAE J1562 Zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steel 2-18
2.12.1 Galvanizing processes
2.12.2 Types of coatings
2.12.3 Coating mass
2.12.4 Surface quality
2.12.5 Coated sheet thickness
2.12.6 Coating designations
2.13 SAE J403 Carbon steel chemical compositions 2-20
2.13.1 Carbon sheet steel
2.13.2 Boron sheet steel
2.14 SAE J405 Wrought stainless steels 2-21
2.15 SAE Specification and ordering descriptions 2-22
2.16 ASTM A463 Aluminized sheet steel 2-24
3. Manufacturing processes
3.1 Stamping 3-1
3.1.1 Stretching
3.1.2 Drawing
3.1.3 Bending
3.1.4 Bending and straightening
3.1.5 Forming limits
3.2 Roll forming 3-4
3.3 Hydroforming 3-6
3.4 Hot forming 3-7
3.5 Bumper beam coatings 3-8
3.5.1 Zinc or zinc-iron coatings
3.5.2 Aluminum coating
3.5.3 Polishing
3.5.4 Chromium coating
3.5.5 Conversion coating
3.5.6 Electrocoating (E-coating)
3.5.7 Paint coating
3.5.8 Autodeposition coating
3.5.9 Powder coating
4. Manufacturing considerations
4.1 Forming considerations 4-1
4.1.1 Guidelines for roll forming high-strength steel
4.1.2 Guidelines for roll forming ultra high-strength steel
4.1.3 General guidelines for stamping high-strength
and ultra high-strength steels
4.1.4 Guidelines for hat sections stamped from
high-strength or ultra high-strength steels
4.1.5 Rules of thumb for high-strength steel stampings
4.2 Welding considerations 4-21
4.2.1 Steel chemistry
4.2.2 High-strength and ultra high-strength steels
4.2.3 Welding processes
4.2.3.1 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
4.2.3.2 Flux cored arc welding (FCAW)
4.2.3.3 Resistance spot welding (RSW)
4.2.3.4 Resistance projection welding (RPW)
4.2.3.5 Resistance seam welding (RSeW)
4.2.3.6 Resistance projection seam welding (RPSeW)
4.2.3.7 High frequency and induction resistance seam welding (RSeW-HF&I)
4.2.3.8 Upset welding (UW)
4.2.3.9 Friction welding (FRW)
4.2.3.10 Laser beam welding (LBW)
4.2.3.11 Laser beam and plasma arc welding (LBW/PAW)
4.2.4 Weldability of bumper materials
4.2.5 Ranking of welding processes
5. Design concepts
5.1 Sweep (roll formed sections) and depth of draw (stampings) 5-1
5.2 Tailor products 5-1
5.3 Latest benchmark bumper beams 5-7
5.4 Bumper weights, materials and coatings 5-14
5.5 Current steel bumper design - passenger cars 5-32
5.5.1 Typical bumper design - North American passenger cars
5.5.2 Typical bumper design - North American and Europe passenger cars
5.6 Current steel bumper design - pickups, full size vans and sport utilities 5-34
5.7 Auto/Steel Partnership high speed steel bumper design - North American passenger cars 5-36
5.7.1 Quantech design criteria for high speed steel bumper system
5.7.2 Flow Chart for high speed system
5.8 Bumper design for pedestrian impact 5-39
5.8.1 Impact tests
5.8.2 EuroNCAP leg to bumper impacts with a “leg-form” impactor
5.8.3 Government regulations
5.8.4 Design approaches
5.8.4.1 Cushioning the impact
5.8.4.2 Supporting the lower limb
5.8.5 Design solutions
6. Relevant safety standards in North America and Europe 6-1
6.1 United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (49CFR),
Part 581 Bumper Standard 6-2
6.1.1 Requirements
6.1.2 Vehicle
6.1.3 Pendulum corner impacts
6.1.4 Pendulum longitudinal impacts
6.1.5 Impacts into a fixed collision barrier
6.2 Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations Section 615 of Schedule IV 6-6
6.2.1 Requirements
6.3 United National Economic Commissions for Europe – ECE Regulation 42 6-6
6.3.1 Requirements
6.3.2 Test Vehicle
6.3.3 Impact device
6.3.4 Longitudinal test procedure
6.3.5 Corner test procedure
6.4 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: Bumper Test Protocol (Version VII) 6-9
6.4.1 Requirements
6.4.2 Test vehicles
6.4.3 Impact barrier
6.4.4 Full-overlap impact
6.4.5 Corner impact
6.5 Consumers Union bumper-basher tests 6-13
6.6 Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) Low-Speed Offset Crash Test 6-13
6.6.1 Requirements
6.6.2 Test vehicle
6.6.3 Front impact
6.6.4 Rear impact
6.7 Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) Bumper Test 6-17
6.7.1 Requirements
6.7.2 Bumper barrier
6.7.3 Full overlap impact
7. Summary/Conclusions 7-1
8. References

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 楼主| 发表于 2013-11-14 20:53:28 | 显示全部楼层
STEEL BUMPER SYSTEMS for PASSENGER VEHICLES and LIGHT TRUCKS.part2.rar (1.85 MB, 下载次数: 1)
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